Add this to your .bashrc or .bash_profile file:

alias blender='/Applications/Blender/blender.app/Contents/MacOS/blender'

To open a file on the command line:

blender file.blend

To render frame 10 from file.blend:

blender -b file.blend -f 10

To render the whole animation from file.blend:

blender -b file.blend -a

Path to Blender Add-Ons for Blender 2.xx:

On Mac

/Users/you/Library/Application Support/Blender/2.xx/scripts/addons

On Windows

C:\Users\you\AppData\Roaming\Blender Foundation\Blender.xx\scripts\addons

On Ubuntu

/home/you/.config/blender/2.xx/scripts/addons

Some Keyboard shortcuts

g – grab or move
g x – move on the x-axis (width)
g y – move on the y-axis (depth)
g z – move on the z-axis (height)

s – scale all axes
s x – scale up or down the x-axis
s y – scale up or down the y-axis
s z – scale up or down the z-axis

r – rotate
r x – rotate around the x-axis
r y – rotate around the y-axis
r z – rotate around the z-axis

CTRL TAB – enter different modes. Select the mode you want from the wheel.
z – enter different rendering modes. Select the mode you want from the wheel.
SHIFT s – cursor 3D selections. Select from the wheel.

a – select all
ALT a – deselect all
b – box select
c – circle select
e – extrude
h – hide
ALT h – show all items in scene.

DELETE or x – delete the current selection.